4 3 Record and Post the Common Types of Adjusting Entries

how will the following adjusting journal entry affect the accounting equation?

What originally happened was people paid for their subscriptions to a publication before they actually got the issues. So you were paid in advance. This means you were given cash when people signed-up https://bizob.biz/catalog.php?rid=6 for the subscriptions. And incurred a liability because you need to make sure you deliver those issues to the customer. A contra asset account for Land will normally appear in the balance sheet.

  • The form in which we see accounting today is possible because of Luca Pacioli, a Renaissance-era monk.
  • Determining whether a transaction is a debit or credit is the challenging part.
  • The $13,420 of Wages Expense is the total of the wages used by the company through December 31.
  • These may be made out annually, monthly, or at any desired time.

Accumulated depreciation refers to the accumulated depreciation of a company’s asset over the life of the company. On a company’s balance sheet, accumulated depreciation is called a contra-asset account and it is used to track depreciation expenses.


A debit is an accounting entry that either increases an asset or expense account, or decreases a liability or equity account. It is positioned to the left in an accounting entry. The usual journal entry transaction typically affects both the balance sheet and income statement. This journal entry has an equal debit and credit – the cash is increased for $100,000 and the owner’s equity is also increased for $100,000. Panda Corporation paid cash of Rp12,000 on June 1, 2019 for one year’s rent in advance and recorded the transaction with a debit to Prepaid Rent. The December 31, 2019 adjusting entry is a.

The owners’ investment is shown in an account called capital or, if there is one owner, proprietorship. The earnings of the company are put into an income account. Since both the capital and the income increase the owners’ equity, capital and income accounts are increased on the credit side . Withdrawals and expenses are increased on the debit side, for each additional expense or withdrawal takes from the owners’ equity.

The Need for Adjusting Entries

Besides deferrals, other types of adjusting entries include accruals. Some costs are not recorded during the period but must be recognized at the end of the period, such as depreciation, rent, and insurance. The first line of a journal entry starts with the date of the transaction. The second line includes the name of the account impacted by the transaction. The third line includes the amount of the transaction.

  • Adjusting entries for depreciation is a little bit different than with other accounts.
  • Payments for goods to be delivered in the future or services to be performed is considered unearned revenue.
  • During December 2019, Spin Jammers held its annual conference at the resort.
  • When Income Summary is closed to Retained Earnings, the amount of the debit or credit to Retained Earnings is a a.
  • Each business transaction journalized via a double entry system will affect the accounting equation.

Learn about the accounting equation. Understand what the accounting equation is, learn the elements of the basic accounting equation, and see examples. You also need to decide whether you will be using the cash or accrual accounting method.

Accounting Treatment of Depreciation

Which of the following statements best describes the purpose of closing entries? To faciliate posting and taking a trial balance.

Bob pays the first-month rental payment of $ 750 on the due date. Bob purchases $20,000 of inventory on credit from the vendors and agrees to pay $1000 per month. Bob borrows $25,000 from the bank to pay for renovation and improvement expenses on the property. He agrees to pay $1000 per month for three years to repay the loan.

Common Reasons for Prepaid Expenses

To identify whether a transaction has an economic impact, it should be analyzed through the accounting equation. The $1,500 balance in Wages Payable is the true amount not yet paid to employees for their work through December 31.

how will the following adjusting journal entry affect the accounting equation?

An accrued expense. Journal entries are an essential component to ensure your financial statements accurately reflect the financial activity of your business. Instead of preparing manual journal entries, we recommend you use accounting software to record accounting journal entries. By using an accounting software, you will decrease the likelihood of errors that can occur when preparing manual journal entries. A recurring accounting journal entry is one that is recorded on a periodic basis (e.g., monthly, quarterly, annually). Let’s say you prepaid $1,200 for an insurance policy that will cover a 12-month period.


Any decrease in the market value of an asset cannot be regarded as depreciation. In other words, depreciation is the allocation of the cost of a fixed asset to the period over which the benefit is obtained from the use of the asset. When fixed assets are acquired for use in abusiness, they are usually useful only for a limited period.

A. Make the December 31 adjusting journal entry to bring the balances to correct. Once you have journalized all of your adjusting entries, the next step is posting the entries to your ledger.

An adjusting journal entry involves an income statement account along with a balance sheet account . What are fundamental accounting equation “income statement” and “balance sheet” accounts? Income statement accounts include revenues and expenses.

how will the following adjusting journal entry affect the accounting equation?

The company needs to correct this balance in the Unearned Revenue account. The expense would show up on the income statement while the decrease in prepaid rent of $10,000 would reduce the assets on the balance sheet by $10,000. These are both asset accounts and do not increase or decrease a company’s balance sheet. Recall that prepaid expenses are considered an asset because they provide future economic benefits to the company. The adjusting journal entry is done each month, and at the end of the year, when the lease agreement has no future economic benefits, the prepaid rent balance would be 0.

The two specific types of adjustments are accrued revenues and accrued expenses. Recall that unearned revenue represents a customer’s advanced payment for a product or service that has yet to be provided by the company.

Assets may be tangible, as are furniture and property, or intangible, as are stocks and goodwill. Assets belong to their owner, regardless of who possesses them and regardless of whether they were purchased with borrowed money. All of a company’s assets are either owed to someone else or are owned clear of debt. Bookkeeping is the systematic recording of the monetary value of business transactions in a book of accounts. It is the preliminary record-keeping stage of accounting. If your accounts don’t balance—total debits don’t equal total credits—you know you’ve made an error that must be investigated.

  • Since everything that is owned is either owed or is free of debt, assets equal liabilities plus equity.
  • This will cancel the values, and no change has happened on the right side of the equation.
  • However, one important fact that we need to address now is that the book value of an asset is not necessarily the price at which the asset would sell.
  • Obtain a proper matching of expense to revenue.

In order to make sure that the accounts of a company are balanced, the total assets must equal the sum of the total of all liabilities and owner’s equity. To see if everything is balanced, the totals are simply plugged in to the accounting equation.

Prepaid expenses represent expenditures that have not yet been recorded by a company as an expense, but have been paid for in advance. In other words, prepaid expenses are expenditures paid in one accounting period, but will not be recognized until a later accounting period.

Prepaid Expenses Example

Combine the previous two points and everything is off. That will only compound over them. Not adjusting entries for one month leads to an inaccurate quarterly report.

For each financial transaction made by a business firm that uses double-entry accounting, a debit and a credit must be recorded in equal, but opposite, amounts. Revenue accounts are on a company’s income statement. A company’s revenue usually includes income from both cash and credit sales. Expense accounts run the gamut from advertising expenses to payroll taxes to office supplies.

Purchase of equipment, for example, will increase assets. The accounting equation creates a double entry to balance this transaction. If cash were used for the purchase, the increase in the value of assets would be offset by a decrease in the same value of cash. If the equipment were purchased using debt, the increase in assets would be balanced by increasing the same amount in loans or accounts payable.

Asset Accounts

In summary, adjusting journal entries are most commonly accruals, deferrals, and estimates. Adjusting journal entries can also refer to financial reporting that corrects a mistake made previously in the accounting period.

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